Zitieren im Englischen - How to use quotes correctly
You can quote (i.e. cite) from:
- primary sources: Hemingway, Shakespeare etc., or
- secondary sources: somebody else's ideas on a text by Hemingway or Shakespeare
When quoting, remember:
1. Quotes must be cited literally ( = wörtlich). Do not change single words, or the word order.
2. Quotes are written in quotation marks; in English they are both above the writing line: eg: The poet is "in vacant or in pensive mood" (Wordsworth: The Daffodils, l. 20).
3. Use [...] for omissions: eg: The poet is "in vacant [...] mood" (ibid.). and to indicate grammar changes from the original: eg: While George is silently reading, his wife "[stands] at the window" (Hemingway: Cat in the Rain, l.12).
4. Refer to the source even if you are not quoting but summarizing ideas (= indirect quotes): eg: The square in front of the hotel is empty because of the rain (CitR, rf. ll. 10f).
5. Integrate the quote in your own sentence, but make sure the quote does not simply repeat the information you have already given.
6. Use quotes to underline your own statements:
- eg primary source: George seems extremely unwilling to care for his wife's needs. When she desperately wants a cat, he is annoyed and simply tells her to "shut up and get something to read" (CitR, l.77).
- eg secondary source: It has been argued that the relationship between the American husband and his wife is characterized by an "emotional estrangement" (Felty, 1997).
7. Do not enclose quotes in parenthesis (); these are used only for text-references.
8. Add text references: The line or page number in parentheses () follows the quote in your text.
one line/page: (l. 4) / (p. 47);
the same line/page: (ibid.) - for Latin: ibidem ( = the same);
two lines/pages: (ll. 4f) / (pp. 47f);
several lines/pages: (ll. 4ff) / (pp .47ff) or (ll. 4-8) / (pp. 47-58);
the same text: (CitR, l. 12), as for: Cat in the Rain
a secondary source: (author's name, year of publication).
9. Add the complete bibliographical reference to your quote at the end of your text (Bibliography) eg (referring to the "emotional estrangement" in number 6): Felty, Darren: Spatial Confinement in Hemingway's Cat in the Rain; Studies in Short Fiction 1997.
10. For further information on quoting in English refer to the MLA (Modern Language Association) Style Sheet: www.mla.org/style
11. Avoid Plagiarism!
to plagiarize: "to take sb else's ideas or words and use them as if they were one's own"
(Advanced Learner's Dictionary)
plagiarism: "the action or fact of [...] literary theft" ( = geistiger Diebstahl)
(New Shorter Oxford Dictionary)
"Every verbatim quotation, unique idea or statistical reference must be cited and thus acknowledged within the work. Failure to do so may lead to a failing grade. Students who alter a few words of a copied work are still guilty of plagiarism and subject to a failing grade. If an idea that is unique to an author is paraphrased, it too must be cited. Ideas that are accepted as common knowledge within a course of study do not have to be cited."
(I. Cotic et al.:"The Social Studies Research Essay: A Student Manual", West Vancouver Secondary School, November 1997, revised Oct. 2000)
"Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require authors to identify the sources of direct quotations and of any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked."
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press 2006, p. 594)
S. Wagner-Dorka, September 2006, 2007